Table of Contents
What Is String Theory In Simple Terms
What is String theory?
String theory in simple terms assumes that the basic components of the universe are one-dimensional “strings” rather than point particles.
String theory does not regard subatomic particles as the basic characteristics of matter but points out that everything is made up of extremely tiny strings, which vibrate to produce what we consider to be atoms, electrons, and quarks.
The core of string theory is a common idea that has run through physics for hundreds of years; that is, on a basic level, all different forces, particles, interactions, and manifestations of reality are connected as part of the same structure.
Not four separate fundamental forces—strong, electromagnetic, weak, and gravitational—but a single theory that covers all of them
The first string model, the boson string, which includes only bosons, describes the theory of quantum gravity at sufficiently low energy, which also includes (if including open strings) gauge fields such as photons (or, more generally, Any Yang theory-Mills).
The theory explains gravity through a specific vibrating string, and its characteristics correspond to the characteristics of the assumed graviton, which is a quantum mechanical particle that carries gravity.
String theory may provide a unified description of gravity and particle physics; it is a candidate for the theory of everything. It is an autonomous mathematical model that describes all basic forces and forms of matter.
String theory is a potential “theory of everything” that unifies all matter and forces into a single theoretical framework that uses vibrating strings instead of particles to describe the basic level of the universe.
The starting point of string theory is that point particles in particle physics can also be modeled as one-dimensional objects called strings.
In string theory, every elementary particle of matter — and every particle that carries the basic force of interaction between matter particles — corresponds to the unique vibration mode of the string, just like the different notes played by the violin correspond to The unique vibration of the string.
Each elementary particle corresponds to a different vibration of this linear matter; the note played on the main string is an electron, the other note is a quark, and the third note is a photon, which is a light particle.
Strings themselves are not made of anything less: they are fundamental parts of the universe.
String theory is one of the methods proposed to create the theory of everything.
This model describes all known particles and forces and will replace the standard model of physics, which can explain everything except gravity.
String theory not only has important theoretical significance but also provides a basis for constructing a real physics model that combines general relativity and particle physics.
String theory is a basic physical model whose building block is a one-dimensional extended object (string) instead of the zero-dimensional point (particle) as the basis of the standard model of particle physics.
The current accepted and experimentally verified theory of how the universe operates on the subatomic scale states that all matter is composed of point particles and interacts with point particles.
This theory, called the Standard Model, describes elementary particles and three of the four elementary forces, which form the cornerstone of our world (for a list of these particles, see the particle table and elementary force table).
Physicists use a string theory to mathematically describe massless miniature black holes.
After the geometric structure of the super-dimensional string theory changes, these black holes reappear in the form of elementary particles with mass and charge.
A particle in gravity theory can correspond to a group of particles in the boundary theory. This is a relationship that shows that a group of strongly interacting particles in one theory can be regarded as a group of weakly interacting particles in a completely different theory under certain circumstances.
Different modes, each corresponding to a different type of particle, constitute the “spectrum” of the theory.
When particles approach the source of gravity, they can still be described as closed chains; alternatively, they can be described by string-like QCD objects, which consist of gauge bosons (gluons) and other degrees of freedom of gauge theory.
Therefore, in one dimension, quantum gravity looks the same as a free quantum particle in any dimension.
Instead of calculating how a single particle (zero-dimensional entity) behaves in any number of dimensions, maybe we can calculate how a string behaves, turning it on or off (one-dimensional entity).
Particle physics is consistent with quantum mechanics, but we also have a theory of gravity.
We want to use quantum phenomena to describe it. This is where things get tricky. Although one-dimensional quantum gravity provides us with a quantum field theory that may bend particles in space-time, it does not describe gravity itself.
While doing the scribbles of mathematics, physicists began to find similarities in particles, imagining them as one-dimensional rings of threadlike matter. The theory assumed that the strong force was generated by strings that held together particles attached to the ends of the strings. Some physicists have argued that string theory, by incorporating this particle into its fundamental structure, combined the laws of the big (general relativity) and the laws of the small (quantum mechanics).
The argument remained marginal for many years until the “revolution in string theory” in 1984 when theorists Michael Green and John Schwartz created equations showing how strings avoid certain inconsistencies by acting on models that describe particles as objects.
Cambridge University. Efforts to find those general equations that would work in all possible situations were unsuccessful, but the supposed existence of a fundamental theory gave theorists the understanding and confidence in developing mathematical methods for the five versions of string theory and their application. Correct context.
Andrew Strominger, then at the Santa Barbara Institute for Theoretical Physics, and Qumran Wafa of Harvard University used string theory to “build” a certain type of black hole, much like you can “build” a hydrogen atom by noting equations obtained from quantum mechanics, which describe an electron associated with a proton.
One of the goals of current string theory research is to find a theoretical solution that can reproduce the observed spectrum of elementary particles with a small cosmological constant, which includes dark matter and possible mechanisms for the expansion of the universe.
Japanese researchers have developed what is arguably the first natural mechanism string theory model to explain why our universe exists in three dimensions when in fact, it has six others.
According to their model, only three of the nine dimensions began to grow at the beginning of the universe, explaining both the ongoing expansion of the universe and its seemingly three-dimensional nature.
In 2003, Michael R. Douglas’s discovery of the string theory landscape, which suggests that string theory has a large number of nonequivalent false voids, led to much discussion about which theory some strings might predict. And how cosmology can be incorporated into the theory.
Sting Theory Was A Failure?
One aspect of the Munich conference was that it was heavily geared toward string theorists, with the participation of David, David Gross, Joe Polchinski, Fernando Quevedo, Dieter Last, and Gordon Kane promoting the idea of the success of string theory.
They suggested that one of string theory’s supposedly bad predictions – the existence of a particular massless particle that no strong interaction experiment has ever encountered – was, in fact, evidence of the unification predicted by Einstein.
While no one has succeeded in combining general relativity and quantum mechanics, preliminary work determined that such a unification would require the very massless particle predicted by string theory.
Some physicists have argued that string theory, by incorporating this particle into its fundamental structure, combined the laws of the big (general relativity) and the laws of the small (quantum mechanics).
String theory appeared as a bright spot in the theory of everything in the late 1990s when Maldacena discovered that string theory includes five dimensions of gravitation, which is equivalent to four dimensions of quantum field theory.
In fact, in 1998, Strominger believed that the initial results could be generalized to any quantum gravitational coherence theory without relying on strings or supersymmetry.
String physicists have discovered many ambiguities between different versions of string theory.
This has led to the assumption that all consistent versions of string theory are combined into a single structure called M-theory.”
Our understanding of the empirical measurement of dynamics “Early Universe” is a saying; string theory has produced many cosmological models that don’t work (see Will Kinney’s best summary at the end of this talk).
String theory is both one of the best ideas in the history of theoretical physics and one of our biggest disappointments.
String theory came onto the scene some 30 years ago as perfection itself, the promise of elegant simplicity that would solve complex problems in fundamental physics, including the infamous intractable discrepancy between Einstein’s easily deformable space-time and the internally neural parts and quantized elements that make up everything in it. String theorists jumped at an idea that was first developed in the early 20th century.
This set the stage for more than half a century of despair as physicists fought valiantly but repeatedly failed to combine general relativity and quantum mechanics, the laws of big and small, into one all-encompassing description.
And then physicists began to realize that the dream of a unified theory was an illusion.
The inconsistency of these theories was discovered not as a result of rationalistic logic but as a result of a careful experiment with nature itself. It is sometimes said that the theory has strayed too far from experiment/observation.
Historically, there is a classic case of the long delay between theory and experiment-Maxwell wave, and the Einstein wave is the best example, 25 years and 100 years later, a piece that has absolutely nothing to do with these problems.
The thing is the life expectancy of human beings. The problem lies within, after ten years of research, the theory has become more serious.
These include the complexity, ugliness, and lack of explanatory power of models designed to link string theory with known phenomena and the continued failure to arrive at a consistent theoretical formula.
According to Robert Laughlin, a 1998 Nobel Prize winner in physics at Stanford University, not only is there a wonderful technological hope for a better future, but also the tragic consequence of an outdated belief system.
For a theory that claims to explain the entire structure of the universe, such a high-level attack is very serious. Rather than discovering scientific progress in a new direction, such theories are designed to block scientific progress by justifying a failed research program.
Physicists do not have a single code – a prospect that worried Einstein so much that for the past 20 years, he has spent the last 20 years in vain searches for a unified theory of everything.
But over the years, scientists have not been able to make a single practical observation that confirms the theory.
One problem, they said, was that the energy required to destroy matter and study the strings within it is so colossal that it would take machines big enough to cover the planet.
Some physicists now view strings as a flawed theory because they don’t provide useful predictions about the universe.
Perhaps in the past 35 years, string theory has been the dominant idea in theoretical particle physics and has produced more scientific articles than any other idea.
However, during this time, he did not even give a testable prediction, which made many people ignore the fact that it had not even risen to a scientific level.
String theory has contributed to many advances in mathematical physics, which have been applied to many problems in black hole physics, early cosmology, nuclear physics, and condensed matter physics, and have promoted many important advances in pure mathematics.
On the one hand, it is a mathematically compelling framework that offers the potential to combine the Standard Model with General Relativity, providing a quantum description of gravity and providing insights into how we understand the entire universe.
But there is a high probability that if and when such a theory is found, causal principles will be required to describe it, just as general relativity needed four-dimensional geometry to describe space-time.
Therefore, entropic gravity requires serious theoretical work to confirm it. Physicists today don’t think teleparallel gravity can unify physics (even Einstein himself eventually gave up on the idea), but it could be an interesting candidate for a new theory of gravity.
Teleparallel gravity may be an interesting and useful new approach to gravity, but it does not bring us any closer to understanding a more fundamental physical law.
He said that string theory plays a “very powerful” role in thinking about the mechanism behind the expansion and expansion of the universe—that is, the moment when the quantum effect collides with gravity after the Big Bang.
The inflation model is intertwined in many ways in string theory, especially in the multiverse: our universe may be one of the countless universes, each of which is created by the same mechanism as ours.
When Einstein tried to create a super theory of everything, he introduced General Relativity 2.0. In his example, on the one hand, he has gravity, represented by his now-famous general theory of relativity; on the other hand, there is electromagnetism, represented by Maxwell’s equations,
which describes everything from magnets and electric currents to light itself. In the last century, they created quantum mechanics to explain the behavior of tiny objects such as atoms and electrons, while Einstein created general relativity to explain the behavior of huge objects such as galaxies.
One example is supersymmetry, whose research has had a huge impact on the physics of the collider and strongly mimics the analysis performed by the experimenter.
In the past five years, Brian Swinger of Harvard University and Sean Carroll of California Institute of Technology have begun to use the ideas of quantum information theory to build models of what Dr. Verlindes’ ideas might mean in practice.